številka / volume 217-220
december / december 2018
januar / january 2019
letnik / anno XLVIII-XLIX

Slovenska alpska arhitektura 2008-2018
Slovene Alpine Architecture 2008-2018
vsebina številke
table of contents
Miha Dešman Uvodnik
Leader
ARHITEKTURA V SLOVENSKIH ALPAH
Živa Deu Arhitekturna identiteta stanovanjskih hiš v slovenskem alpskem prostoru
Architectural Identity of the Residential Houses in the Slovene Alpine Space
Miro Eržen Planinske koče – odraz obdobja izgradnje in potreb obiskovalcev gorskega sveta
Mountain Huts – Reflections of their Construction Periods and the Needs of Mountain Visitors
Miha Kajzelj Sodobna gorska arhitektura v Sloveniji po letu 2000
Post 2000 Contemporary Mountain Architecture in Slovenia
Uroš Lobnik Arhitektura zmeraj poravnava neko izgubo
Architecture is Always Making Up for a Loss
Aleksander Saša Ostan Building Culture in Slovenian Alps through Space and Time
RAZSTAVA Slovenska alpska ahitektura 2008–2018
Slovene Alpine Architecture 2008–2018
Maja Ivanič, Kristina Dešman, Špela Nardoni Kovač Pozor – lomljivo!
Attention – fragile!
Bernardo Bader Arhitektura v Alpah
Architecture in Alps
ODPRTI PROSTOR
OPEN SPACE
Dans arhitekti 01 Kolesarska pot in brv čez Savo pri kampu Danica v Bohinjski Bistrici
Bicycle and Footbridge over River Sava at Danica Camp
Krog 02 Kopišča, spominski park z obeležjem
Memorial Park at Kopišča
ŠPORTNI OBJEKTI
SPORTS FACILITIES
Sandra Banfi Škrbec, Miha Kajzelj, Iztok Kavčič, Iztok Lemajič 03 Veslaški center in ciljna regatna arena z novim sodniškim stolpom
Rowing Centre and Regatta Finish Arena with a new Referee Tower
Multiplan arhitekti 04 Tribune ciljne regatne arene
Stands at Rowing Regatta Finish Arena
Studio AKKA 05 Nordijski center Planica: krajinska ureditev
Planica Nordic Centre: Landscape Architecture
Studio Abiro 06 Nordijski center Planica: skakalnice, spremljajoči in športni objekti
Planica Nordic Centre: Ski Jumps, Auxiliary and Sports Facilities
Biro STVAR 07 Nordijski center Planica: osrednji objekt za smučarske teke in servisni objekti
Planica Nordic Centre: Central Facility for Cross-country Skiing and Service Buildings
BIVAKI IN TURISTIČNI OBJEKTI
BIVOUACS AND TOURISM FACILITIES
Kajzelj arhitektura 08 Bivak pod Grintovcem
Bivouac under Grintovec Mountain
Studio Dom 09 Prenova pastirskega stanu/ Renovation of a Shepherds' Cottage
Tomaž Noč 10 Mini for-4 Bled
OFIS arhitekti, Harvard GSD 11 Bivak pod Skuto
Alpine Shelter under Skuta Mountain
OFIS arhitekti 12 Zimska soba na Kaninu
Winter Shelter on Kanin Mountain
Kajzelj arhitektura 13 Prenova planinske koče in ureditev vhodne terase
Mountain Hut Renovation and Entrance Area Layout
JAVNE STAVBE
PUBLIC BUILDINGS
Boris Leskovec, Alja Vehovec, Rok Kajtna 14 Slovenski planinski muzej
Slovenian Alpine Museum
AU arhitekti 15 Rinka – Center za trajnostni razvoj Solčavskega
Rinka – Centre for the sustainable development of Solčavsko region
Studio Kalamar 16 Upravni center Jesenice
Administrative Centre Jesenice
STANOVANJSKE IN POČITNIŠKE HIŠE
HOUSES: DWELLING AND LEISURE
GregorcVrhovec 17 Črna hiša
Black House
Ur.a.d. 18 Hiša Ruta
House Ruta
OFIS arhitekti 19 Prenova alpskega skednja
Alpine Barn Renovation
Prima 20 Vikend na Jasni
Holiday Home at Jasna
Skupaj arhitekti 21 Hiša v Alpah
House in the Alps
Medprostor 22 Prenova domačije Vrlovčnik
Renovation of Vrlovčnik Homestead
RAZŠIRJENI UREDNIŠKI IZBOR
EXTENDED EDITORIAL SELECTION
Atelje Ostan Pavlin 23 Kolesarska pot Bohinj
Cycling Path Bohinj
Ravnikar Potokar arhitekturni biro 24 Trg pod gradom in otroško igrišče Zamorc
Square under the Castle and Playground Zamorc
Marjeta Fendre, Peter Ličen 25 Gozdne vile
Forest Villas
Premica 26 Obnova bivaka ob Zasavski koči na Prehodavcih
Renovation of the Bivouac by Zasavje Hut at Prehodavci
Atelje Ostan Pavlin 27 Družinska kapelica Bovec
Family Chapel Bovec
Bevk Perović arhitekti 28 Hiša R
House R
Kombinat 29 Hiša P
House P
3biro arhitekti 30 Hiša Poljane
House Poljane
uvodnik

Miha Dešman

„Ne zidaj slikovito, prepusti ta učinek stenam, goram in soncu. Človek, ki se slikovito oblači, ni slikovit, temveč je pavliha. Kmet se ne oblači slikovito. Pa vendar je tak.”
Adolf Loos, Pravila za tistega, ki gradi v hribih, 1913 [1]

Alpska arhitektura se že od nekdaj ravna po potrebah prebivalcev, po nujnosti preživetja. Gre za arhitekturo, ki jo narekujejo omejitve in posebnosti regije. Loos je v kratkem sestavku pronicljivo ugotovil, da so načini in oblike, ki so jih prebivalci v Alpah uporabljali pri gradnji, plod razvoja naših razumnih prednikov in težkih okoliščin, v katerih so živeli. Rešitve in tudi oblike izhajajo iz nuje in varčnosti, ne estetike. Loos je problematiziral kakršenkoli romantičen odnos, skupaj z ornamentom ga je metaforično razglasil za zločin. Njegovo strogo stališče velja še danes, tudi pri nas.

Ali je Slovenija alpska dežela ali ni? Ali je del "družine v Lederhosen"? Seveda je, saj ima v svoji mitologiji svoje inačice zgodb o Heidi in je tudi dežela, kjer so doma alpinisti, alpski smučarji in alpski turbofolk. Seveda pa status alpske nacije poleg dobrin popkulture predpostavlja še kaj več, tudi spodobno alpsko arhitekturo, v smislu Loosove kritike. Vsi vemo, da sodobni turbofolk v alpskih regijah cveti. Kaj pa arhitektura? Najprej je tu dediščina "arhitekture brez arhitektov", ki je potencialno uporabna za razvijanje specifične sodobne arhitekture. Slovenija ima bogato alpsko etnografsko stavbno dediščino, ki je še relativno ohranjena. Nastala je, kot povsod drugod, iz potreb in nuje za preživetje v trdih gospodarskih, socialnih, geografskih in klimatskih razmerah. Bivalna kultura v Alpah je celovita, vsebuje organizacijo prostora in življenja od organizacije teritorija preko arhitekture do posameznega predmeta. Ta celovitost razumne hierarhije je najpomembnejše sporočilo tradicije, ki se dotika tako trajnostne paradigme kot konstrukcije smisla v sodobnem svetu. Žal pa smo to sporočilo vsaj začasno zanemarili.

Primer: stare hiše v alpskih vaseh so razporejene po strogih principih v skupine, ki oblikujejo vaške ambiente. Nekoč je vsaka nova hiša premišljeno reagirala na danosti v prostoru, s postavitvijo vhoda, erkerjem, pogledom na vodnjak, cerkveni stolp ipd. Še danes te hiše oblikujejo skupnost, ki je tesna in premišljena, omogoča notranjo demokratičnost, medsebojno spoštovanje in pogovor. Ta kultura se je v drugi polovici 20. stoletja popolnoma izgubila. Novejše hiše so postavljene ob cesto sredi parcele, brez medsebojnih odnosov.

Tudi arhitekturo, ki je zavestno in odgovorno interpretirala alpsko tradicijo, smo imeli že večkrat v zgodovini. Romantični tradicionalizem se je uveljavil sočasno s preostalim alpskim svetom. Naši herojski predhodniki so v prvi polovici 20. stoletja poskušali na kreativen način interpretirati legitimiteto in bogastvo specifične historične alpske arhitekture. Jože Plečnik, ki je danes mednarodno prepoznan kot največji slovenski prispevek k svetovni arhitekturi, je v svojih delih zavestno povezoval folklorne elemente in visoko arhitekturo, s čimer je ustvaril specifično nacionalno identiteto. Z zanj značilno ustvarjalno domišljijo je z zgoščanjem podob iz arhitekturne in umetnostne zgodovine, arheologije, ljudskega izročila na arhitekturni način gradil pripoved o izvorih arhitekture, identitete, krajev in življenja.

V okviru t.i. Ljubljanske arhitekturne šole v 50. in 60. letih 20. stoletja so arhitekti pod vodstvom prof. Edvarda Ravnikarja razvili specifično arhitekturo, ki bi ji še najbolj ustrezal Framptonov termin "kritični regionalizem". Številni objekti z javnim ali zasebnim programom, kot so bili hoteli, šole, pa tudi vikendi in planinske koče, so dosegli zavidljivo raven arhitekturne kvalitete v vseh pogledih, od idejne drznosti, izvirnosti do izvedbene bravuroznosti.

Od takrat se svet razvija v smeri, ki vse bolj zanika in ignorira arhitekturo, pa se zdi, kot da arhitekti tega ne jemljemo resno

Kaj torej zmorejo današnja arhitektura na slovenskem koščku Alp in njeni arhitekti?

Slovenija trenutno nima razvite konsistentne alpske arhitekture niti bivalne kulture. Na Fakulteti za arhitekturo Univerze v Ljubljani za zdaj ni predmeta, ki bi se na celosten način ukvarjal z alpskimi študijami, alpsko arhitekturo, alpsko tradicijo, alpskimi tehnologijami gradnje itd. (kar je seveda tudi mea culpa).

Za nas so Švicarji, pa tudi Vorarlberg in obe Tirolski, severna in južna, vsaj za zdaj in navidez nedosegljivi vzori. To ne pomeni, da plediram za kakršenkoli paternalizem, saj smo alpsko arhitekturo in tudi bivalno kulturo v preteklosti že imeli, pa tudi danes ima Slovenija veliko avtentičnih potencialov, ki omogočajo, da bi se ta kultura lahko razvila. Žal pa je arhitekturna kvaliteta večine zgrajenega katastrofalna. Popolnoma generične, iz arhitekture v mestih izvirajoče stavbe so najpogostejše. Ponavadi se jim, v režiji pričakovanj naročnikov, ali če je tako predpisano v urbanističnih aktih, doda kakšen površni atribut regionalnega, kot je lesena fasada, strma dvokapnica, čopi, ali kaj podobnega. V alpsko nošo oblečeni, neproporcionalni in oblikovno banalni stavbi, ki posnema kmečko hišo iz 19. stoletja, se skrivajo hotel, diskoteka, bazen ali/in šoping center.

Le majhnemu delu zgrajenega lahko rečemo arhitektura. Nastaja po zaslugi arhitektov, ki na bolj ali manj uspešen in kreativen način v vsakem posameznem projektu vključujejo današnje pozicije arhitekture in trende bivanja v alpskem svetu v svojo specifično pripoved. Tako nastajajo raznoliki žanri alpske arhitekture (in bivanja), ki odpirajo nove tipološke in formalne registre. Nekateri med njimi sestavljajo tole številko revije.

Kar razširjeni so arhitekti, ki znajo patos romantičnega zanosa naročnikov izkoristiti za realizacijo skrajno osebnih poetik. Osrednjo vlogo igra mlada, manieristična generacija, ki raziskuje in meša vse potenciale na vedno nov način. Od prejšnjih generacij se razlikuje po odpovedi večnim resnicam in privilegiju edinega pravilnega prepričanja, svoje naročnike zapeljujejo, namesto da bi jih učili, kot so to počele prejšnje generacije. Ne ukvarja se s teorijami, strokovnimi združenji in klasičnim arhitektskim imidžem (ki so ga osvojili in pustili za sabo), pač pa ponujajo čutnost, empatijo, operativnost in zapeljevanje. Njihova arhitektura ne temelji več na civiliziranem branju arhitekturne zgodovine, pač pa je nekakšna mutacija profesionalne prakse, ki se je prilagodila plitvosti in hitrosti sodobne generične družbe. Ta pristop, kot pravi Koolhas, postaja nova folklora, nova vernakularna arhitektura. Sprejeti situacijo takšno, kot je, je nujna prva faza v terapiji, nadaljuje Koolhas. Sodobne izpeljave tradicije, z neizbežnim soočenjem s Plečnikom kot očetovsko figuro, so idejno raznorodne in velikokrat površne. Pogosto poskušajo arhitekti nevtralizirati, globalizirati in razpršiti premočan vpliv. Situacija je podobna kot pri številnih italijanskih arhitektih zadnjih dveh desetletij, ki ne najdejo svojega načina nadaljevanja herojske zgodovine in se zato trudijo postati Neitalijani, da bi sploh lahko delali neobremenjeno. Prav v zadnjem času pa se najboljši iz dovoljšnje časovne distance in po ovinku spoznanja izpraznjenosti aktualne globalne izkušnje, znova približujejo večplastnemu, odprtemu in kreativnemu stiku s koreninami. Ta kontekstualizem ni naraven, pač pa umeten in kritičen. Zavestno problematizira svoje vzore in išče stik s sodobnostjo. Ta stik je tretji in najpomembnejši potencial, ki ga lahko Slovenci prispevamo k razvoju alpske arhitekture.

Arhitektura ne zmore vsega, kljub želji arhitektov. Svet gre svojo pot, in iz iluzije lastne pomembnosti hitro drsimo v situacijo, ko se zdi arhitektura manj ali celo nepomembna. Potegniti avtocesto ali hitro železniško progo skozi ozko alpsko dolino pomeni poseg, viden iz satelita, v primerjavi s katerim je arhitekturno detajliranje fasadne obloge videti irelevantno. Jezera in jezovi hidroelektrarn, smučišča s svojimi napravami, industrija, kamnolomi ..., nasproti pa lahko postavimo kaj malo, nostalgično željo po harmoniji in razumljivosti arhitekturnega sporočila. Pa še tu nam stvari uhajajo iz rok.

Najbrž bi bil primeren skupni cilj, da bi usposobili alpsko regijo, da bi lahko odgovorila na globalne ekonomske, ekološke trende, z vključitvijo regeneracije ekološko in drugače prizadetih območij, hidrologije, konstrukcijo novih, naravi prijaznih infrastruktur, prostorov za bivanje, rekreacijo, novih parkov, prostorov kulture. Pri tem moramo slediti maksimi, da je varovanje tradicije prenos ognja, ne čaščenje pepela. Izogniti se moramo nevarnosti, da bi alpsko pokrajino konservirali kot muzej, ki bo izgubljal ekonomsko utemeljenost, možnost razvoja, ustvarjalni smisel. Prihodnost sveta je odvisna od naše zmožnosti, da ohranimo oziroma zaščitimo globalno bivalno okolje. To je kompleksen in interdisciplinaren problem, ki zadeva vsakogar in vse, navadne ljudi, politike, strokovnjake, intelektualce, znanstvenike, umetnike itd. Za njegovo reševanje je potreben holističen pristop, v katerem ima arhitektura pomembno vlogo in odgovornost, predvsem pri iskanju inovativnih rešitev. Pri tem ne gre le za zaščito obstoječih virov, prostora, kulture ipd., pač pa predvsem za kreativno oblikovanje prihodnosti. Razviti moramo oblike in možnosti za vzdržno in trajnostno bivanje in razvoj, tako politični in ekonomski kot socialni in kulturni. Arhitekti moramo biti inventivni pri kreiranju vzdržnostne in trajnostne arhitekture. Poleg tega je arhitektura kljub vsemu še vedno živ dokaz vitalnosti in ekonomske moči neke regije, zato si vsako okolje, še posebej alpsko, zasluži dobro arhitekturo. In še, kar tudi ni zanemarljivo, lepota ambienta ima vedno tudi terapevtski učinek.

  1. Iz: Adolf Loos, Ornament in zločin, KD Myra Locatelli, 2017, prev. Uršula Rebek

leader

Miha Dešman

"Do not build in a picturesque manner. Leave such effects to the walls, the mountains and the sun. A person who dresses to be picturesque is not picturesque but looks like an oaf. The farm labourer does not dress to be picturesque. But he is.”
Adolf Loos, Rules for Building in the Mountains, 1913 [1]

Alpine architecture has always been shaped by the inhabitants' needs, by the necessity of survival. This is architecture as dictated by the limitations and distinctive properties of the region. In his brief article, Loos astutely establishes that the manners and forms of construction used by inhabitants in the Alps are the result of the development of our intelligent ancestors and the difficult circumstances in which they lived. The solutions, as well as the forms are the result of necessity and thrift, not aesthetics. Loos challenged any romantic attitudes; together with the ornament, he metaphorically labelled it a crime. His stern position stands to this day, in Slovenia as much as anywhere else. Is Slovenia an Alpine country or not? Is it part of the Lederhosen family? Of course it is - its mythology contains its variations on Heidi stories, and it is also the home of Alpine climbers, Alpine skiers, and Alpine turbo-folk culture.

Obviously, there are further prerequisites for the status of an Alpine nation beside the blessings of popular culture, including decent Alpine architecture along the lines of Loos's criticism. We know full well that contemporary turbo-folk is thriving in Alpine regions. What about architecture?

First, there is the heritage of "architecture without architects", which is potentially useful for developing specific contemporary architecture. Slovenia has a rich Alpine ethnographical built heritage, which is still relatively well preserved. It was born, like everywhere else, out of the need and necessity to survive in harsh economic, social, geographical, and climate conditions. The habitational culture in the Alps is comprehensive, it contains the organisation of space and life, from the organisation of territory to architecture and finally to individual objects. This all-encompassing rational hierarchy is the most important message of the tradition which touches upon both the sustainability paradigm and the construction of meaning in the contemporary world. Unfortunately, this message is being at least temporarily disregarded.

Example: old houses in Alpine villages are arranged according to strict principles in groups forming village ambients. In the past, each new house would be a considered reaction to the spatial properties in the placement of its entrance, oriel, the view of the well and the bell tower, etc. Even today, these houses shape a community, which is close and considered, allowing internal democracy, mutual respect, and conversation. This culture has been completely lost in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Newer houses are placed by the road in the middle of the plot, without any relations between them.

We have had architecture which consciously and responsibly interpreted the Alpine tradition several times in history. Romantic traditionalism gained ground here at the same time as in the rest of the Alpine world. In the 1st half of the 20th century, our heroic forebears tried to creatively interpret the legitimacy and richness of the specific historical Alpine architecture. Jože Plečnik, who is today internationally recognised as the greatest Slovene contribution to world architecture, consciously combined elements of folklore and high architecture in his works in order to create a specific national identity. With his characteristic creative imagination, he condensed images from the history of architecture and arts, archaeology, and folk tradition in an architectural way in order to construct a narrative about the origins of architecture, identity, places, and life.

As part of the so-called Ljubljana school of architecture in the 1950s and 60s, architects under the guidance of Prof. Edvard Ravnikar developed a specific architecture, the best description of which would be Frampton's term "critical regionalism". Numerous buildings with public or private programme such as hotels, schools, but also holiday homes and mountain huts, achieved an admirable degree of architectural quality in all respects, from the boldness of their idea, originality, to the brilliant execution.

From that time, the world has been evolving in the direction which increasingly rejects and ignores architecture, and yet it seems that this is not taken seriously by us architects.

What, then, are today's architecture on the Slovene patch of the Alps and its architects capable of?

At the moment, Slovenia lacks a developed consistent Alpine architecture or habitational culture. At the Faculty of Architecture in Ljubljana, there is at present no subject dealing with Alpine studies, Alpine architecture, Alpine tradition, Alpine building technologies etc. in an comprehensive way (for which I am partially to blame).

At least for the time being, the Swiss, as well as Vorarlberg and both Tyrols represent an unattainable ideal. This does not mean that I plead for any kind of paternalism as Slovenes had once already laid claim to both Alpine architecture and habitational culture; furthermore, nowadays, Slovenia possesses many authentic potentials which make it possible for this culture to develop. Unfortunately, the architectural quality of most of what has been built is abysmal. Wholly generic buildings derived from city architecture prevail. Typically, owing either to the investors' expectations or the stipulations of urbanistic bylaws, a regional attribute is added as an afterthought, such as a timber facade, a steep gabled roof, hips, or some such. A poorly proportioned building, banal in its appearance, mimicking a 19th century farmhouse by way of its Alpine costume, might house a hotel, a night club, a swimming pool, or a shopping centre. Only a small portion of the built may be called architecture. It is being created thanks to architects who endeavour to include in each individual project in more or less successful and creative ways their own specific narrative on the present-day positions of architecture and habitation trends in the Alpine world. In this way, diverse genres of Alpine architecture (and habitation) are created, opening up new typological and formal registers. Some of them make up the present issue of ab Magazine.

There are quite a few architects to be found who are able to use the pathos of the investors' romantic enthusiasm in order to realise intensely personal poetic works. The young, manneristic generation plays the central role, researching and blending all the potentials in ever-new ways. It differs from the previous generations by having renounced the revealed truths and the privilege of the sole correct conviction; they seduce their investors instead of teaching them like the previous generations did. It doesn't deal in theories, professional associations and the classic architect's image (which they mastered and left behind); instead it offers sensuality, empathy, efficiency, and seduction. Their architecture is no longer based on the civilised reading of architectural history but is a kind of mutation of professional practice which has adapted to the shallowness and speed of the contemporary generic society. This approach, according to Koolhaas, is becoming the new folklore, the new vernacular architecture. Acknowledging the state of affairs, whatever it may be, is the obligatory first stage of a therapy, Koolhaas further states.

The contemporary derivations of the tradition including the inevitable confrontation with Plečnik as the father figure are disparate in terms of ideas and frequently superficial. Often, architects try to neutralise, globalise and disperse an overly strong influence. The situation is similar to that of many Italian architects of the past two decades who are unable to find their own way of carrying on the heroic past and are thus trying to become Non-Italians in order to even be able to work without the pressure. Just recently, however, the best of them having taken the detour through the vacuity of the current global experience and benefited from sufficient time distance are re-approaching the multi-layered, open, and creative connection with their roots. This contextualism is not natural but artificial and critical. It consciously challenges its own models and seeks a connection with the contemporary. This connection is the third and most important potential, which we, Slovenes, can contribute to the development of Alpine architecture. Architecture is not omnipotent, as much as architects wish it were. The world is going its own way, and from an illusion of our own importance, we are rapidly drifting into a situation in which architecture seems less important, or even unimportant. Building a motorway or a railway track through a narrow Alpine valley is an intervention visible from space; in comparison, the architectural detailing of a facade cladding looks irrelevant. Lakes and hydro-plant dams, ski slopes with their lifts, the industry, quarries against these, we can pit very little, a nostalgic desire for harmony and comprehensibility of the architectural message. And even here, things are slipping through our fingers.

Equipping the Alpine region to respond to the global economic and environmental trends by including the regeneration of environmentally and otherwise affected areas, hydrology, the construction of new, nature-friendly infrastructures, living and recreation spaces, new parks, and spaces for culture seems an suitable common goal. In doing this, we must follow the maxim that protecting the heritage means handing down the fire rather than worshipping the ashes. We must avoid the danger of conserving the Alpine landscape as a museum that would cause it to forfeit economic sense, the opportunity to develop, and its creative purpose.

The future of the world depends on our capability to preserve or protect the global living environment. This is a complex and interdisciplinary problem affecting anyone and everyone: regular people, politicians, experts, intellectuals, scientists, artists, etc. Its solving requires a holistic approach in which architecture has an important role and a responsibility, chiefly in seeking innovative solutions. This is not only about protecting the existing resources, space, culture, etc., but first and foremost about creatively shaping the future. We must develop forms and possibilities for sustainable habitation and development, political as well as economic, social as well as cultural. As architects, we must be inventive in creating sustainable architecture. In spite of everything, architecture still serves as living proof of the vitality and economic strength of a region, which is why every environment, and the Alpine environment in particular, deserves good architecture. After all, it is hardly inconsequential that an ambient's beauty will always have a therapeutic effect.

  1. From: Adolf Loos, Ornament in zločin, KD Myra Locatelli, 2017, prev. Uršula Rebek